Poe & Hawthorne

Parallel Lives

1827 Tamerlane and Other Poems by A Bostonian published by Calvin F.S. Thomas in Boston, MA.
1828Fanshawe: A Tale by Anonymous published by Marsh & Capen in Boston, MA.
1829Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems by Edgar Allan Poe published by Hatch & Dunning in Baltimore, VA.
1830
1831Poems by Edgar A. Poe published by Elam Bliss in New York.
1832
1833Poe wins prize for contest held by Baltimore Saturday Visiter for “MS. Found in a Bottle”; John P. Kennedy is a judge.
1834
1835
1836
1837Twice-Told Tales by Nathaniel Hawthorne published by American Stationers’ Co. in Boston, MA.
1838The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket published by Harper & Brothers in New York.
1839
1840Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque by Edgar Allan Poe published by Lea and Blanchard of Philadelphia, PA.
1841Twice-Told Tales (2 volumes) by Nathaniel Hawthorne published by James Munroe and Co. in Boston, MA.
1842The Poets and Poetry of America by Rufus Wilmot Griswold published by Carey & Hart in Philadelphia, PA.
1843Poe wins $100 for contest held by Philadelphia Dollar Newspaper for “Gold Bug.”
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1860Edgar Poe and His Critics by Sarah Helen Whitman published by Rudd and Carleton in New York.
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1878English Men of Letters Series ed. John Morley publishes its first literary-biography: Samuel Johnson by Leslie Stephen published by Macmillan and Co., London and Harper and Brothers, New York City.
1879Hawthorne by Henry James Jr. is published by Macmillan and Co., London and Harper and Brothers, New York City as part of English Men of Letters series ed. John Morley.

Emily Dickinson mentions both Hawthorne and Poe in back-to-back sentences in a letter to Higginson in December: “Of Poe, I know too little to think—Hawthorne appalls, entices—.”
1880
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1883The Modern Language Association (MLA) is founded for the purpose of studying modern languages, e.g., English, German, French, Spanish, Italian—in contrast to the then institutionalized study of ancient languages, primarily Greek and Latin. The first president was Franklin Carter; the second was James Russell Lowell. Stephen Greenblatt was president in 2002; Judith Butler for 2021-2022. 
1884MLA begins publication of their quarterly journal PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association). 
1885Edgar Allan Poe by George Edward Woodberry is published by Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. in Boston and New York as part of The American Men of Letters series ed. Charles Dudley Warner. Interestingly, the back of the book says one on Nathaniel Hawthorne is in preparation by James Russell Lowell. This appears to have fell through because George E. Woodberry published the one on Hawthorne for this series in 1902. 
1886
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1902Nathaniel Hawthorne by George Edward Woodberry is published by Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. in Boston and New York as part of American Men of Letters series ed. Charles Dudley Warner.
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1912“The Poe Canon” by Killis Campbell in vol. 27, no. 3 of PMLA published by MLA
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1920
1921Edgar A. Poe: A Study by John W. Robertson, MD printed by Bruce Brough in San Francisco

“Contemporary Opinion of Poe” by Killis Campbell in vol. 36, no. 2 of PMLA published by MLA
1922
1923
1924
1925Origins of Poe’s Critical Theory by Margaret Alterton published in vol. 2, no. 3, University of Iowa Humanistic Studies ed. Franklin H. Potter.
1926Edgar Allan Poe: A Study in Genius by Joseph Wood Krutch published by Alfred A. Knopf in New York.
1927Hawthorne: A Study in Solitude by Herbert Gorman published in New York

The Rebellious Puritan: Portrait of Mr. Hawthorne by Lloyd Morris published in New York
1928
1929American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography (journal) is founded as part of the American Literature Group of Modern Language Association (MLA) of America published by Duke University Press and MLA. It is funny that “Literary History” appears first in the list of things in the subtitle and that this is the name of the journal—American Literary History—that will be founded in 1989, published by Oxford University Press. Jay B. Hubbell writes the Foreword and hilariously mentions that American writing “does not rival the great literatures of the Old World in artistic value.”

Hawthorne by Newton Arvin published by Little, Brown, and Company in Boston, MA. 
1930
1931
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1937“Criticism, Inc.” by John Crowe Ransom in vol. 13, no. 4, Autumn issue of The Virginia Quarterly Review published by the University of Virginia. Crowe argues that English Departments should reclaim the literary-object as their own object of study with an autonomous set of scientific principles. He laments how literature is often surrendered as a subset of history or ethics.
1938
1939Hawthorne’s Contemporaneous Reputation: A Study of Literary Opinion in America and England (1939) by Bertha Faust published by the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia as a Dissertation in the Doctor of Philosophy.
1940
1941 American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman by F.O. Matthiessen published by Oxford University Press. 
1942
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1955Hawthorne: A Critical Study by H.H. Waggoner

The Death of the Artist: A Study of Hawthorne’s Disintegration by Rudolph Von Abele
1956
1957Hawthorne’s Tragic Vision by Roy R. Male
1958
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1966Colloquium on “The Languages of Criticism and the Sciences of Man” is held at Johns Hopkins University and is regarded as the seismic event of poststructuralism thought entering the American university system.  
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1988“Whose American Renaissance?” by Frederick Crews published in the New-York Review of Books where Crew coins the term “New Americanists” to describe a wave of scholars who take a suspicious stance toward the Cold War, Liberal, Consensus in American studies, attempting to expose its ideological presuppositions, and more generally share the critical attitudes of the New Historicist movement in literary study (see boundary 2 special issue edited by Donald E. Pease in 1990 and American Renaissance by F.O. Matthiessen in 1941).
1989American Literary History (journal) founded in 1989 and published by Oxford University Press. It is fitting that a journal dedicated to uncovering the historical aspects of American literature comes out at the end of this decade—a crowning moment pointing to the directions scholarship is to follow. Vol. 1, no. 1 is on “American Pastoral Ideology.” 
1990boundary 2, spring 1990, Vol. 17, no. 1 published by Duke University Press: special issue “New Americanists: Revisionists Interventions into the Canon” edited by Donald E. Pease.
1991
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1997Daedalus, Vol. 126, No. 1 published by MIT Press on behalf the American Academy of Arts & Sciences: Part II. Trajectories of Intra-Disciplinary Change: Participant Perspectives contains a section on “Literature.” M.H. Abrams’ essay “Transformation of English Studies: 1930—1995” is the first of three essays in this section.
1998
1999
2000
2001Romancing the Shadow: Poe and Race ed. J. Gerald Kennedy and Liliane Weissberg is published by Oxford University Press. The title comes from Part II of Toni Morrison’s study Playing in the Dark : Whiteness and the Literary Imagination (1992) where she claims, “No early American writer is more important to the concept of American Africanism than Poe.” 
2002
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2007Nathaniel Hawthorne: The Contemporary Reviews (2007) ed. John L. Idol, Jr. and Buford Jones published by Cambridge University Press.
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